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Test ID CDU Cadmium, 24 Hour, Urine

Reporting Name

Cadmium, 24 Hr, U

Useful For

Detecting exposure to cadmium, a toxic heavy metal

Specimen Type

Urine


Specimen Required


Collection Container/Tube: Clean, plastic urine container with no metal cap or glued insert

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic, 10-mL urine tube (T068) or clean, plastic aliquot container with no metal cap or glued insert

Specimen Volume: 10 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect urine for 24 hours.

2. Refrigerate specimen within 4 hours of completion of 24-hour collection.

3. See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.

Additional Information:

1. 24-hour volume is required.

2. See Urine Preservatives in Special Instructions for multiple collections.

3. High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metals tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.


Specimen Minimum Volume

2 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
  Ambient  28 days
  Frozen  28 days

Reference Values

0-15 years: not established

≥16 years: 0.0-1.3 mcg/specimen

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday through Friday; 7 p.m., Saturday; 2 p.m.

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

82300

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CDU Cadmium, 24 Hr, U 5612-7

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
31106 Cadmium, 24 Hr, U 5612-7
TIME7 Collection Duration 13362-9
VL83 Total Volume 3167-4
31075 Cd Concentration 21130-0

Clinical Information

The toxicity of cadmium resembles the other heavy metals (arsenic, mercury, and lead) in that it attacks the kidney; renal dysfunction with proteinuria with slow onset (over a period of years) is the typical presentation. Measurable changes in proximal tubule function, such as decreased clearance of para-aminohippuric acid also occur over a period of years, and precede overt renal failure.

 

Breathing the fumes of cadmium vapors leads to nasal epithelial deterioration and pulmonary congestion resembling chronic emphysema.

 

The most common source of chronic exposure comes from spray painting of organic-based paints without use of a protective breathing apparatus; auto repair mechanics represent a susceptible group for cadmium toxicity. Another common source of cadmium exposure is tobacco smoke, which has been implicated as the primary source of the metal leading to reproductive toxicity in both males and females.

 

The concentration of cadmium in the kidneys and in the urine is elevated in some patients exposed to cadmium.

 

See also CDOM / Cadmium for Occupational Monitoring, Urine. If employees are being monitored in the workplace, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration requires that laboratory reports express the cadmium excretion rate per gram of creatinine rather than per 24 hours. This alternative test is available to accommodate that requirement. Mayo Medical Laboratories is certified to provide this test.

Clinical Reference

1. deBurbure C, Buchet J-P, Leroyer A, et al: Renal and Neurologic Effects of Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in Children: Evidence of Early Effects and Multiple Interactions at Environmental Exposure Levels. Environ Health Perspect 2006;114:584-590

2. Schulz C, Angerer J, Ewers U, et al: Revised and new reference values for environmental pollutants in urine or blood of children in Germany derived from the German Environmental Survey on Children 2003-2006(GerESIV) Int J Hyg Environ Health 2009;212:637-647

3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, US Department of Labor: Cadmium Exposure Evaluation. Updated 9/2/2008. Available from URL: osha.gov/SLTC/cadmium/evaluation.html

Analytic Time

1 day

Method Name

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

Urine Preservative Collection Options

Ambient

Yes

Refrigerated

Preferred

Frozen

Yes

6N HCl

Yes

50% Acetic Acid

Yes

Na2CO3

No

Toluene

Yes

6N HNO3

Yes

Boric Acid

No

Thymol

No