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Test ID STLPC St. Louis Encephalitis Antibody Panel, IgG and IgM, Spinal Fluid

Useful For

Aiding the diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis

Method Name

Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA)

Reporting Name

St. Louis Enceph Ab Panel, CSF

Specimen Type

CSF


Specimen Required


Container/Tube: Sterile vial

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Additional Information: This test is not available for specimens originating in New York.


Specimen Minimum Volume

0.2 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time
CSF Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
  Frozen  14 days

Clinical Information

Since 1933, outbreaks of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) have involved the western United States, Texas, the Ohio-Mississippi Valley, and Florida. The vector of transmission is the mosquito. Peak incidence occurs in summer and early autumn. Disease onset is characterized by generalized malaise, fever, chills, headache, drowsiness, nausea, and sore throat or cough followed in 1 to 4 days by meningeal and neurologic signs. The severity of illness increases with advancing age; persons over 60 years have the highest frequency of encephalitis. Symptoms of irritability, sleeplessness, depression, memory loss, and headaches can last up to 3 years.

 

Infections with arboviruses, including SLE, can occur at any age. The age distribution depends on the degree of exposure to the particular transmitting arthropod relating to age, sex, and occupational, vocational, and recreational habits of the individuals. Once humans have been infected, the severity of the host response may be influenced by age. SLE tends to produce the most severe clinical infections in older persons.

Reference Values

IgG: <1:10

IgM: <1:10

Reference values apply to all ages.

Interpretation

Detection of organism-specific antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may suggest central nervous system infection. However, these results are unable to distinguish between intrathecal antibodies and serum antibodies introduced into the CSF at the time of lumbar puncture or from a breakdown in the blood-brain barrier. The results should be interpreted with other laboratory and clinical data prior to a diagnosis of central nervous system infection.

Clinical Reference

1. Gonzalez-Scarano F, Nathanson N: Bunyaviruses. In Fields Virology. Vol 1. Second edition. Edited by BM Fields, DM Knipe. New York, Raven Press, 1990, pp 1195-1228

2. Donat JF, Rhodes KH, Groover RV, Smith TF: Etiology and outcome in 42 children with acute nonbacterial meningoencephalitis. Mayo Clin Proc 1980:55:156-160

3. Tsai TF: Arboviruses. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Seventh edition. Edited by PR Murray, EF Baron, MA Pfaller, et al. Washington, DC, ASM Press, 1999, pp 1107-1124

4. Calisher CH: Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin Microbiol Rev 1994;7:89-116

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

May through October: Monday through Friday; 9 a.m.

 

November through April: Monday, Wednesday, Friday; 9 a.m.

Analytic Time

Same day/1 day

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

86653 x 2

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
STLPC St. Louis Enceph Ab Panel, CSF In Process

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
26367 St. Louis Enceph Ab, IgG, CSF 21509-5
26368 St. Louis Enceph Ab, IgM, CSF 21510-3