Sign in →

Test ID RESPM Respiratory Pathogen Panel, PCR, Nasopharyngeal


Advisory Information


This test is not intended for otherwise healthy, immunocompetent patients who are likely to have a mild, self-limited respiratory infection. If testing is desired, these patients should be tested using the more targeted diagnostic assays based on their exposure history and clinical presentation.

-FLUNP / Influenza Virus Type A and Type B, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Molecular Detection, PCR, Nasopharyngeal Swab

-BPRP / Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, Molecular Detection, PCR

-MPRP / Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Molecular Detection, PCR

 

It is not recommended that the following tests be concomitantly ordered when this test is ordered:

-FLUNP / Influenza Virus Type A and Type B, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Molecular Detection, PCR, Nasopharyngeal Swab

-LADV / Adenovirus, Molecular Detection, PCR

-LENT / Enterovirus, Molecular Detection, PCR

-BPRP / Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, Molecular Detection, PCR

-MPRP / Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Molecular Detection, PCR

 

This test is appropriate for nasopharyngeal swabs only. For bronchoalveolar lavage or bronchial washings specimens, order RESLR / Respiratory Pathogen Panel, PCR, Miscellaneous Sources.



Shipping Instructions


Specimens that cannot be shipped refrigerated to Mayo Clinic Laboratories within 3 days (72 hours) should be frozen prior to shipment. Specimens received older than 72 hours (refrigerated) or older than 30 days (frozen) will be canceled.

Specimen Required


Supplies:

Nasopharyngeal Swab (Rayon Mini-Tip Swab) (T515)

M4-RT media (T605)

Specimen Type: Nasopharyngeal Swab

Container/Tube: Culture transport swab (T515) and Viral Transport medium (eg, M4, M4-RT [T605], M5, M6, universal transport medium). See Collection Instructions.

Specimen Volume: Entire collection/1 swab

Collection Instructions: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens should be collected according to standard technique and immediately placed into viral transport media and submitted for testing.


Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Microbiology Test Request (T244) with the specimen.

Secondary ID

62832

Useful For

Rapid detection of respiratory infections caused by the following:

-Adenovirus

-Coronavirus (serotypes HKU1, NL63, 229E, OC43)

-Human metapneumovirus

-Human rhinovirus/enterovirus

-Influenza A (H1, H1-2009, H3)

-Influenza B

-Parainfluenza virus (serotypes 1-4)

-Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

-Bordetella pertussis

-Chlamydophila pneumoniae

-Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Highlights

The FilmArray respiratory panel is a multiplex PCR test capable of qualitatively detecting DNA or RNA of 20 pathogens (bacteria and viruses) in approximately 1 hour from nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

 

This test is used to diagnose infection caused by adenovirus, coronavirus (HKU1, NL63, 229E, OC43), human metapneumovirus, human rhinovirus/enterovirus, influenza A (H1, H1-2009, H3), influenza B, parainfluenza (1, 2, 3, 4), respiratory syncytial virus, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Method Name

Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Reporting Name

Respiratory Pathogen Panel, PCR, NP

Specimen Type

Varies

Specimen Minimum Volume

Nasopharyngeal swab in minimum volume of 1 mL of viral transport media (eg, M4-RT or M5)

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time
Varies Refrigerated (preferred) 72 hours
  Frozen  30 days
  Ambient  4 hours

Reject Due To

Hemolysis

NA

Lipemia

NA

Icterus

NA

Other

Any sample type other than nasopharyngeal swab; swab not in viral transport medium

Clinical Information

Respiratory infections are common and generally cause self-limited illnesses in healthy, immunocompetent hosts. Viruses account for a significant percentage of respiratory diseases, but bacteria may be associated with respiratory infections. Although respiratory illnesses are frequently mild, viruses may cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts (eg, transplant recipients, patients with underlying malignancies).

 

Influenza viruses (type A and type B) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are 2 common causes of viral respiratory illness, with peak incidence in the winter and spring months in the Northern hemisphere. Both viruses can cause a clinically indistinguishable syndrome, characterized by fever, cough, headache, and general malaise. RSV is a leading cause of respiratory illness in young children. Early diagnosis of influenza and RSV is important so that 1) necessary infection control precautions can be taken if the patient is hospitalized, and 2) antiviral therapy can be considered if the patient is hospitalized or considered at high-risk for severe disease.(1) Human metapneumovirus is also a cause of respiratory illness in both children and adults.

 

Human rhinovirus and coronavirus (serotypes HKU1, NL63, 229E, OC43) are the causative agents of the common cold, with symptoms including runny nose, sore throat, and malaise. Infections with rhinovirus and coronaviruses are extremely common, due to the large number of serotypes of these viruses. Most infections are mild and self-limiting; however, immunocompromised hosts may suffer more severe illnesses, including lower respiratory tract disease.

 

Parainfluenza viruses and adenovirus are also common causes of viral infection, especially in young children. Parainfluenza viruses are most common during the spring, summer, and fall months, with symptoms including fever, runny nose, and cough. However, parainfluenza viruses may also cause more severe lower respiratory disease, such as croup or pneumonia. Adenoviruses may infect a range of organ systems, with sequelae ranging from cold-like symptoms (sore throat), to pneumonia, conjunctivitis (pink eye), or diarrhea. Similarly to the viruses described above, parainfluenza viruses and adenoviruses generally cause mild, self-limited infections but may cause severe disease in immunosuppressed patients.

 

Respiratory infections may also be caused by bacterial pathogens, including Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of pertussis, or whooping cough, a disease characterized by prolonged cough that may be associated with an inspiratory whoop and post-tussive vomiting. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cause of upper respiratory infection, pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a rare cause of pneumonia.

Reference Values

Negative (for all targets)

Interpretation

Results are intended to aid in the diagnosis of illness and are meant to be used in conjunction with other clinical and epidemiological findings.

 

A negative result should not rule-out infection in patients with a high pretest probability for a respiratory infection. The assay does not test for all potential infectious agents of respiratory disease. Specimens collected too early or too late in the clinical course may not yield the organism causing disease. Negative results should be considered in the context of a patient's clinical course and treatment history, if applicable.

 

For immunocompromised patients who have a negative FilmArray respiratory panel test from a nasopharyngeal sample, but a high suspicion for infection, there may be additional value in testing a bronchoalveolar lavage specimen (RESLR / Respiratory Pathogen Panel, PCR, Miscellaneous Sources).

 

Positive results do not distinguish between a viable or replicating organism and the presence of a nonviable organism or nucleic acid, nor do they exclude the potential for coinfection by organisms not included in the panel. Nucleic acid may persist in some patients for days to weeks, even following appropriate therapy. Detection of 1 or more organisms included in this test suggests that the virus or bacteria is present in the clinical sample; however, the test does not distinguish between organisms that are causing disease and those that are present but not associated with a clinical illness. Coinfections (eg, detection of multiple viruses or bacteria or viruses and bacteria) may be observed with this test. In these situations, the clinical history and presentation should be reviewed thoroughly to determine the clinical significance of multiple pathogens in the same specimen.

Cautions

The detection of microbial DNA or RNA is dependent upon proper sample collection, handling, transportation, storage, and preparation. There is a risk of false-negative results due to the presence of strains with sequence variability or genetic rearrangements in the target regions of the assays.

 

This test is not recommended as a test of cure.

 

Repeat testing should not be performed on samples collected less than 7 days apart.

 

Adenovirus: Assay may show variable detection with no-respiratory serotypes within species A, D, F, and G.

Influenza A: Performance characteristics were established when influenza A H1-2009, A H1, and A H3 were the predominant influenza A viruses in circulation. Performance of detecting influenza A may vary if other influenza A strains are circulating or a novel influenza A virus emerges. The performance of the FilmArray respiratory panel has not been established in individuals who received influenza vaccine. Recent administration of a nasal influenza vaccine may cause false-positive results for influenza A or influenza B. Some strains of human, swine, or avian origin are predicted to react with influenza A assays leading to an Influenza A (no subtype detected) result.

Assay detects and differentiates commonly occurring influenza A hemagglutinin subtypes based on only the hemagglutinin gene, through the use of 2 influenza A assays and 3 subtyping assays for the hemagglutinin gene. Results are reported as "detected" when at least 1 of the influenza A assays and 1 of the subtyping assays are both positive. If both of the influenza A assays are positive without a hemagglutinin subtype, results are reported as influenza A (no subtype detected). Equivocal results are reported following repeat testing in 2 scenarios: 1) Neither of the influenza A assays are positive, but a hemagglutinin gene is positive, 2) One of the influenza A assays is positive, and hemagglutinin genes are negative. The assay does not detect or differentiate the influenza A neuraminidase gene.

Rhinovirus/Enterovirus Group: Due to the genetic similarity of these viruses, the assay is unable to reliably differentiate them.

Bordetella pertussis: Some acellular vaccines contain PCR-detectable DNA. Contamination of specimens with vaccine can cause false-positive Bordetella pertussis PCR results. Specimens should not be collected or processed in areas that are exposed to B pertussis vaccine material. Assay targets the single-copy promoter region of the pertussis toxin gene. Results of this assay may not be concordant with commonly used Bordetella PCR assays, which target the multicopy insertions sequences (IS481). Cross reactivity could occur with high levels or rare sequence variants of other species such as B bronchiseptica and B parapertussis.

Coronavirus: Coronavirus OC43 assay may cross-react with coronavirus HKU1. As a result, when both HKU1 and OC43 are detected in the same patient specimen, the result may be due to assay cross-reactivity. A coinfection with these 2 viruses is also possible.

Clinical Reference

1. Lee N, Lui GC, Wong KT, et al: High morbidity and mortality in adults hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus infections. Clin Infect Dis 2013:57(8):1069-1077

2. Miliander C, Espy M, Binnicker MJ: Evaluation of the BioFire FilmArray for the detection of respiratory viruses in clinical samples. Clinical Virology Symposium Annual Meeting, Daytona, Florida, April 2013

3. Ramanan P, Bryson AL, Binnicker MJ, Pritt BS, et al: Syndromic panel-based testing in clinical microbiology. Clin Microbiol 2018 Rev 31:e00024-17. Available at: https://cmr.asm.org/content/31/1/e00024-17

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday through Sunday; Continuously

Analytic Time

1 day

Performing Laboratory

Mayo Clinic Laboratories in Rochester

Test Classification

This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information

0099U

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
RESPM Respiratory Pathogen Panel, PCR, NP In Process

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
SS021 Specimen Source 31208-2
36086 Adenovirus In Process
36087 Coronavirus 229E In Process
36088 Coronavirus HKU1 In Process
36089 Coronavirus NL63 In Process
36090 Coronavirus OC43 In Process
36091 Human Rhinovirus/ Enterovirus In Process
36093 Human Metapneumovirus In Process
36094 Influenza A In Process
36095 Influenza B In Process
36096 Parainfluenza Virus 1 In Process
36097 Parainfluenza Virus 2 In Process
36098 Parainfluenza Virus 3 In Process
36099 Parainfluenza Virus 4 In Process
36100 Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Process
36101 Bordetella pertussis In Process
36102 Chlamydophila pneumoniae In Process
36103 Mycoplasma pneumoniae In Process
36312 Interpretation 59464-8

NY State Approved

Yes