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Test ID CAH2T Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Newborn Screen, Blood Spot

Useful For

Second-tier testing of newborns with abnormal screening result for congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Method Name

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

Portions of this test are covered by patents held by Quest Diagnostics

Reporting Name

CAH Newborn Screen, BS

Specimen Type

Whole blood


Necessary Information


Birth weight, time of birth, and gestational age are required.



Specimen Required


Supplies: Card - Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper) (T493)

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Blood Spot Collection Card (T493)

Acceptable: Local newborn screening card, Whatman 903 filter paper, Ahlstrom 226 filter paper, Munktell filter paper

Specimen Volume: 2 Blood spots

Collection Instructions:

1. Do not use device or capillary tube containing EDTA to collect specimen.

2. Do not expose specimen to heat or direct sunlight.

3. Do not stack wet specimens.

4. Keep specimen dry.

5. Let blood dry on the filter paper at ambient temperature in a horizontal position for a minimum of 3 hours.

Additional Information:

1. For collection instructions, see Blood Spot Collection Instructions in Special Instructions.

2. For collection instructions in Spanish, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Spanish Instructions (T777) in Special Instructions.

3. For collection instructions in Chinese, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Chinese Instructions (T800) in Special Instructions.


Specimen Minimum Volume

Blood spot: 1

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Whole blood Ambient (preferred) 90 days FILTER PAPER
  Frozen  90 days FILTER PAPER
  Refrigerated  90 days FILTER PAPER

Clinical Information

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of disorders caused by inherited defects in steroid biosynthesis, most commonly, 21-hydroxylase deficiency (approximately 90% of cases) and 11-beta hydroxylase deficiency (approximately 5% of cases). The overall incidence of CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is approximately 1 in 15,000 live births. Individuals with CAH may present with life-threatening salt-wasting crises in the newborn period and incorrect gender assignment of virilized females, which occurs due to in utero exposure to reduced glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androgens. Hormone replacement therapy, when initiated early, results in a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality. Therefore, newborn screening for CAH is desirable and has been implemented in all 50 states.

 

Immunoassays are typically used to quantify 17-OHP as a marker for CAH in the newborn screen setting. However, these immunoassays are hampered by cross-reactivity of the antibodies with other steroids, yielding a high rate of false-positive results. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) allows for the simultaneous specific determination of 17-OHP and other steroids, such as androstenedione, cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, and 21-deoxycortisol. Application of this technology to the determination of steroids in newborn blood spots significantly enhances the correct identification of patients with CAH and reduces the number of false-positive screening results when implemented as a second-tier analysis performed prior to reporting of initial newborn screen results.

Reference Values

17-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE

<15.1 ng/mL

 

ANDROSTENEDIONE

<3.1 ng/mL

 

CORTISOL

Not applicable

 

11-DEOXYCORTISOL

<15.1 ng/mL

 

21-DEOXYCORTISOL

<4.1 ng/mL

 

(17 OHP + ANDROSTENEDIONE)/CORTISOL RATIO

<1.1

Note: Abnormal (17 OHP + Androstenedione)/Cortisol Ratio: ≥1.1 is only applicable when 17-OHP is elevated

 

11-DEOXYCORTISOL/CORTISOL RATIO

Not applicable

Interpretation

Findings of a 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) value greater than 15.0 ng/mL and a high (17-OHP + androstenedione)/cortisol ratio (≥1) are supportive of the initial abnormal newborn screening result.

 

Findings of an 11-deoxycortisol value greater than 15.0 ng/mL or 21-deoxycortisol greater than 4.0 ng/mL with elevated 17-OHP further support the abnormal newborn screening result and increase the diagnostic specificity. Clinical and laboratory follow-up is strongly recommended.

Clinical Reference

1. Antal Z, Zhou P: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: diagnosis, evaluation and management. Pediatr Rev 2009 Jul;30(7):e49-57

2. Minutti CZ, Lacey JM, Magera MJ, et al: Steroid profiling by tandem mass spectrometry improves the positive predictive value of newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Clin Endo Met 2004;89:3687-3693

3. Turcu AF, Auchus RJ: The next 150 years of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2015 Sep;153:63-714

4. Witchel SF, Azziz R: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Pediatri Adolesc Gynecol 2011;24:116-126

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday through Saturday; 8 a.m.

Analytic Time

1 day (not reported on Sunday)

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

82542

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CAH2T CAH Newborn Screen, BS 57086-1

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
42207 17-OH Progesterone 38473-5
42208 Androstenedione 53343-0
42209 Cortisol 53345-5
42210 11-deoxycortisol 53338-0
42211 21-deoxycortisol 53341-4
42212 (17OHP+Androstenedione)/Cortisol 53336-4
42213 11-deoxycortisol/Cortisol No LOINC Needed
BG688 Birth Weight (grams, XXXX) 8339-4
BG689 Time of Birth (24hr time, XX:XX) 57715-5
BG690 Gestational Age (weeks, XX.X) 76516-4
42206 Reviewed By 18771-6
42214 Interpretation (CAH2T) 46758-9

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send an Inborn Errors of Metabolism Test Request (T798) with the specimen.

Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Pediatric Catalog Additional Information:

mcl-newborn