Sign in →

Test ID DENGM Dengue Virus Antibody, IgG and IgM, Serum

Useful For

Aids in the diagnosis of dengue virus infection

Profile Information

Test ID Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
DENG Dengue Virus Ab, IgG, S No Yes
DENM Dengue Virus Ab, IgM, S No Yes
DNABI Dengue Ab Interpretation No Yes

Reporting Name

Dengue Virus Ab, IgG and IgM, S

Specimen Type

Serum


Specimen Required


Container/Tube: 

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL


Specimen Minimum Volume

0.4 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
  Frozen  14 days

Clinical Information

Dengue virus (DV) is a globally distributed flavivirus with 4 distinct serotypes (DV-1, -2, -3, -4) and is primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of over 100 countries. DV poses a significant worldwide public health threat with approximately 2.5 to 3 billion people residing in DV endemic areas, among whom 100 to 200 million individuals will be infected and approximately 30,000 patients will succumb to the disease, annually.

 

Following dengue infection, the incubation period varies from 3 to 7 days and while some infections remain asymptomatic, the majority of individuals will develop classic dengue fever. Symptomatic patients become acutely febrile and present with severe musculoskeletal pain, headache, retro-orbital pain, and a transient macular rash, most often observed in children. Fever defervescence signals disease resolution in most individuals. However, children and young adults remain at increased risk for progression to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome, particularly during repeat infection with a new DV serotype.

 

Detection of dengue-specific IgM/IgG-class antibodies remains the most commonly utilized diagnostic method. Seroconversion occurs approximately 3 to 7 days following exposure and, therefore, testing of acute and convalescent sera may be necessary to make the diagnosis. As an adjunct to serologic testing, identification of early DV infection may be made by detection of the DV NS1 antigen. NS1 antigenemia is detectable within 24 hours of infection and up to 9 days following symptom onset. The DV NS1 antigen can be detected by ordering DNSAG / Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen, Serum.

Reference Values

IgG: negative

IgM: negative

Reference values apply to all ages.

Interpretation

IgG:

The presence of IgG-class antibodies to dengue virus (DV) is consistent with exposure to this virus sometime in the past. By 3 weeks following exposure, nearly all immunocompetent individuals should have developed IgG antibodies to DV.

 

IgM:

The presence of IgM-class antibodies to DV is consistent with acute-phase infection.

 

IgM antibodies become detectable 3 to 7 days following infection and may remain detectable for up to 6 months or longer following disease resolution.

 

The absence of IgM-class antibodies to DV is consistent with lack of infection. However, specimens drawn too soon following exposure may be negative for IgM antibodies to DV. If DV remains suspected, a second specimen, drawn approximately 10 to 12 days following exposure should be tested.

Clinical Reference

1. Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, et al: The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature 2013;496:504-507

2. Dengue--an infectious disease of staggering proportions. Lancet 2013Jun 22;381(9884):2136

3. Rigau-Perez JG, Clark GG, Gubler DJ, et al: Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Lancet 1998;352:971-977

4. Tang KF, Ooi EE: Diagnosis of dengue: an update. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2012;10:895-907

5. Guzman MG, Kouri G: Dengue diagnosis, advances and challenges. Int J Infect Dis 2004;8:69-80

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Tuesday; 9 a.m.

Analytic Time

Same day/1 day

CPT Code Information

IgM: 86790

IgG: 86790

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
DENGM Dengue Virus Ab, IgG and IgM, S 87546-8

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
DENG Dengue Virus Ab, IgG, S 29661-6
DENM Dengue Virus Ab, IgM, S 29663-2
DNABI Dengue Ab Interpretation 69048-7

Method Name

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.