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Test ID KETGP Ketone Disorders Gene Panel, Varies

Ordering Guidance

The recommended first-tier biochemical testing for ketone disorders includes urine organic acids and plasma acylcarnitine profile. Order OAU / Organic Acids Screen, Random, Urine and ACRN / Acylcarnitines, Quantitative, Plasma.


Customization of this panel and single gene analysis for any gene present on this panel is available. For more information see CGPH / Custom Gene Panel, Hereditary, Next-Generation Sequencing, Varies

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.

Specimen Required

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.


Submit only 1 of the following specimens:


Specimen Type: Whole blood


Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send whole blood specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred) 4 days/Refrigerated 14 days


Specimen Type: Skin biopsy

Supplies: Fibroblast Biopsy Transport Media (T115)

Container/Tube: Sterile container with any standard cell culture media (eg, minimal essential media, RPMI 1640). The solution should be supplemented with 1% penicillin and streptomycin.

Specimen Volume: 4-mm punch

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.


Specimen Type: Cultured fibroblast

Container/Tube: T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 2 Flasks

Collection Instructions: Submit confluent cultured fibroblast cells from a skin biopsy from another laboratory. Cultured cells from a prenatal specimen will not be accepted.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated (<24 hours)

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.


Specimen Type: Blood spot

Supplies: Card-Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper) (T493)


Preferred: Collection card (Whatman Protein Saver 903 Paper)

Acceptable: PerkinElmer 226 (formerly Ahlstrom 226) filter paper or blood spot collection card

Specimen Volume: 5 Blood spots

Collection Instructions:

1. An alternative blood collection option for a patient 1 year of age or older is a fingerstick. For infants younger than 1 year, a heel stick should be used. See Dried Blood Spot Collection Tutorial for how to collect blood spots via fingerstick.

2. Let blood dry on the filter paper at ambient temperature in a horizontal position for a minimum of 3 hours.

3. Do not expose specimen to heat or direct sunlight.

4. Do not stack wet specimens.

5. Keep specimen dry.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

Additional Information:

1. Due to lower concentration of DNA yielded from blood spot, it is possible that additional specimen may be required to complete testing.

2. For collection instructions, see Blood Spot Collection Instructions

3. For collection instructions in Spanish, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Spanish Instructions (T777)

4. For collection instructions in Chinese, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Chinese Instructions (T800)


Specimen Type: Saliva

Patient Preparation: Patient should not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum 30 minutes prior to collection.

Supplies: Saliva Swab Collection Kit (T786)

Specimen Volume: 1 Swab

Collection Instructions: Collect and send specimen per kit instructions.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient 30 days

Additional Information: Due to lower concentration of DNA yielded from saliva, it is possible that additional specimen may be required to complete testing.


1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing  (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (Spanish) (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Biochemical Disorders Patient Information (T527) in Special Instructions

Useful For

Follow up for abnormal biochemical results suggestive of a ketone disorder


Establishing a molecular diagnosis for patients with ketone disorders


Identifying variants within genes known to be associated with ketone disorders, allowing for predictive testing of at-risk family members

Method Name

Sequence Capture and Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Sanger Sequencing.

Reporting Name

Ketone Disorders Gene Panel

Specimen Type


Specimen Minimum Volume

See Specimen Required

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies

Clinical Information

Ketones are a chemical energy source used by tissues when glucose is low. Disorders of impaired ketone body metabolism include beta-ketothiolase (BKT) deficiency and succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency. Disorders of ketogenesis are mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaric acid CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase (mHS) and HMG-CoA lyase (HL) deficiencies.


BKT deficiency is caused by impaired activity of the enzyme acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. Individuals with BKT deficiency are typically asymptomatic at birth, and symptoms are likely to develop from 6 to 18 months of age with illness or fasting, which appear as episodes of decompensation and severe ketoacidosis, vomiting, dehydration, and lethargy. Children are usually asymptomatic between episodes.


SCOT deficiency is a more severe ketone utilization disorder, as all experience recurrent ketoacidotic episodes, and most individuals have chronic ketosis. About 50% of infants with SCOT deficiency present in the first week of life, and the remaining 50% present between 6 to 24 months of age.


mHS deficiency is due to reduced activity of a mitochondrial enzyme mHS. Infants with mHS deficiency have episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia, which can progress to coma. In mHS deficiency, there is no diagnostic pattern of organic acids in urine. The only biochemical diagnostic test is enzyme assay of mHS in liver.


HL deficiency is due to reduced activity of mitochondrial and peroxisomal enzyme HL. Infants and children with HL deficiency also experience hypoketotic hypoglycemic episodes, and long-term impacts of these episodes can include epilepsy, intellectual disability, and white matter changes in the brain, usually due to hypoglycemia. Urine organic acids of individuals with HL are characteristic and demonstrate high levels of HMG and leucine metabolites.


All 4 of these ketone disorders are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. BKT deficiency is caused by variants in ACAT1, and SCOT deficiency is caused by variants in the OCT1. HMG-CoA synthase deficiency is due to variants in HMGCS2, and HMG-CoA lyase deficiency is due to variants in HMGCL.


An additional disorder that impacts ketone metabolism and is included in this panel is monocarboxylate transporter 1 deficiency, due to 2 variants in SLC16A1 and resulting in severe episodes of ketoacidosis with illness or fasting.


Treatment for these ketone disorders involves avoidance of fasting and provision of oral or intravenous carbohydrate to correct hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. Long term neurologic sequelae occur in some individuals and are a consequence of hypoglycemia during ketoacidotic episodes.


Urine organic acids (OAU / Organic Acids Screen, Random, Urine) and plasma acylcarnitine profile (ACRN / Acylcarnitines, Quantitative, Plasma) are the recommended first-tier tests for assessment of ketone disorders. However, as these may be normal in all but severe BKT deficiency, molecular genetic testing is a rapid and effective tool to diagnose individuals with ketone disorder.

Reference Values

An interpretive report will be provided.


All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Clinical Reference

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med. 2015 May;17(5):405-424.

2. Mitchell GA, Fukao T: Inborn errors of ketone body metabolism. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet A, Mitchell GA. eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease McGraw-Hill Education; 2019. Accessed January 07,2020. Available at

3. Hori T, Yamaguchi S, Shinkaku H, et al: Inborn errors of ketone body utilization. Pediatr Int. 2015;57(1):41-48

4. Fukao T, Mitchell G, Sass JO, Hori T, Orii K, Aoyama Y: Ketone body metabolism and its defects. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2014;37(4):541-551 

Test Classification

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information


88233-Tissue culture, skin, solid tissue biopsy (if appropriate)

88240-Cryopreservation (if appropriate)

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
KETGP Ketone Disorders Gene Panel In Process


Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
608692 Test Description 62364-5
608693 Specimen 31208-2
608694 Source 31208-2
608695 Result Summary 50397-9
608696 Result 82939-0
608697 Interpretation 69047-9
608698 Resources 99622-3
608699 Additional Information 48767-8
608700 Method 85069-3
608701 Genes Analyzed 48018-6
608702 Disclaimer 62364-5
608703 Released By 18771-6

Day(s) Performed


Report Available

4 to 6 weeks

Reflex Tests

Test ID Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CULFB Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test Yes No

Testing Algorithm

 For skin biopsy or cultured fibroblast specimens, fibroblast culture testing will be performed at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.