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Test ID NMITO Nuclear Mitochondrial Gene Panel, Next-Generation Sequencing, Varies

Ordering Guidance

The diagnostic workup for a mitochondrial disorder may include testing to demonstrate elevations of the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio and an elevated growth differentiation factor 15 concentration. Consider LAPYP / Lactate Pyruvate Panel, Plasma and GDF15 / Growth Differentiation Factor 15, Plasma.


Customization of this panel and single gene analysis for any gene present on this panel are available. For more information see CGPH / Custom Gene Panel, Hereditary, Next-Generation Sequencing, Varies.


Targeted testing for familial variants (also called site-specific or known variants testing) is available for the genes on this panel. See FMTT / Familial Mutation, Targeted Testing, Varies. To obtain more information about this testing option, call 800-533-1710.

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.

Specimen Required

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with whole blood or dried blood spot testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.


Submit only 1 of the following specimens:


Specimen Type: Whole blood


Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send whole specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred) 4 days/Refrigerated 4 days


Specimen Type: Skin biopsy

Supplies: Fibroblast Biopsy Transport Media (T115)

Container/Tube: Sterile container with any standard cell culture media (eg, minimal essential media, RPMI 1640). The solution should be supplemented with 1% penicillin and streptomycin.

Specimen Volume: 4-mm punch

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.


Specimen Type: Cultured fibroblast

Container/Tube: T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 2 Flasks

Collection Instructions: Submit confluent cultured fibroblast cells from a skin biopsy from another laboratory. Cultured cells from a prenatal specimen will not be accepted.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated (<24 hours)

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.



1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing  (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (Spanish) (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Biochemical Disorders Patient Information (T527)

Useful For

Diagnosing the subset of mitochondrial disease that results from variants in the nuclear-encoded genes


A second-tier test for patients in whom previous targeted gene variant analyses for specific mitochondrial disease-related genes were negative


Identifying variants within genes of the nuclear genome that are known to be associated with mitochondrial disease, allowing for predictive testing of at-risk family members

Reflex Tests

Test ID Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CULFB Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test Yes No

Testing Algorithm

If skin biopsy is received, fibroblast culture will be added at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.

Method Name

Sequence Capture and Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Sanger Sequencing

Reporting Name

Nuclear Mitochondrial Gene Panel

Specimen Type


Specimen Minimum Volume

Blood: 1 mL; Blood spots: 2 spots; Skin biopsy or cultured fibroblasts: See Specimen Required

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies

Clinical Information

The mitochondrion occupies a unique position in eukaryotic biology. It is the site of energy metabolism, and it is the sole subcellular organelle that is composed of proteins derived from 2 genomes, mitochondrial and nuclear. A group of hereditary disorders due to variants in either the mitochondrial genome or nuclear mitochondrial genes has been well characterized.


The diagnosis of mitochondrial disease can be particularly challenging as the presentation can occur at any age, involve virtually any organ system, and be associated with widely varying severities. Due to the considerable overlap in the clinical phenotypes of various mitochondrial disorders, it is often difficult to distinguish these specific inherited disorders without genetic testing. This test utilizes massively parallel sequencing, also termed next-generation sequencing, to analyze 221 nuclear-encoded genes implicated in mitochondrial disease. The utility of this test is to assist in the diagnosis of the subset of mitochondrial diseases that result from variants in the nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. This includes disorders of mitochondrial protein synthesis, disorders of coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis, disorders of the respiratory chain complexes and disorders of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance (ie, mtDNA depletion disorders).

Reference Values

An interpretive report will be provided


All detected variants are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Clinical Reference

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med. 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. Munnich A, Rotig A, Cormier-Daire V, Rustin P: Clinical presentation of respiratory chain deficiency. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA, eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill; 2019. Accessed September 28, 2020.

3. Wong LJ: Molecular genetics of mitochondrial disorders. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2010;16(2):154-162

4. Barca E, Long Y, Cooley V, et al: Mitochondrial disease in North America: An analysis of the NAMDC Registry. Neurol Genet. 2020 Mar 2;6(2):e402

Day(s) Performed


Report Available

28 to 42 days

Test Classification

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information


LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
NMITO Nuclear Mitochondrial Gene Panel In Process


Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
617091 Test Description 62364-5
617092 Specimen 31208-2
617093 Source 31208-2
617094 Result Summary 50397-9
617095 Result 82939-0
617096 Interpretation 69047-9
618172 Additional Results In Process
617097 Resources 99622-3
617098 Additional Information 48767-8
617099 Method 85069-3
617100 Genes Analyzed 48018-6
617101 Disclaimer 62364-5
617102 Released By 18771-6