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Test ID POXP Fatty Acid Profile, Peroxisomal (C22-C26), Plasma

Useful For

Evaluating patients with possible peroxisomal disorders, including peroxisomal biogenesis disorders, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and Refsum disease using plasma specimens


Aiding in the assessment of peroxisomal function

Method Name

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis

Reporting Name

Fatty Acid Profile, Peroxisomal,P

Specimen Type


Specimen Minimum Volume

0.15 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Plasma Frozen (preferred) 92 days
  Refrigerated  15 days

Clinical Information

Peroxisomes are organelles present in all human cells except mature erythrocytes. They carry out essential metabolic functions including beta-oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), alpha-oxidation of phytanic acid, and biosynthesis of plasmalogen and bile acids. Peroxisomal disorders include disorders of peroxisomal biogenesis with defective assembly of the entire organelle and single peroxisomal enzyme/transporter defects where the organelle is intact, but a specific function is disrupted. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation of VLCFA is impaired in all disorders of peroxisomal biogenesis and in selected single enzyme deficiencies, particularly X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), resulting in elevated concentrations of VLCFA in plasma or serum.


Peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBD) include the Zellweger syndrome spectrum disorders, which are clinically diverse and range in severity from neonatal lethal (Zellweger syndrome) to more variable clinical courses in neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and infantile Refsum disease. Affected children typically have hypotonia, poor feeding, distinctive facial features, seizures, and liver dysfunction. Other features can include retinal dystrophy, hearing loss, developmental delays, and bleeding episodes. Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata is another PBD. It is characterized by rhizomelic shortening, chondrodysplasia punctata, cataracts, intellectual disability, and seizures, although it can have a milder phenotype with only cataracts and chondrodysplasia. The typical biochemical profile shows normal VLCFA and elevated phytanic acid.


X-ALD is a neurologic disorder affecting the white matter and adrenal cortex. It can present between ages 4 and 8 years as a childhood cerebral form with behavioral and cognitive changes, associated with neurologic decline. Other forms include an "Addison disease only" phenotype with adrenocortical insufficiency without initial neurologic abnormality and adrenomyeloneuropathy associated with later-onset progressive paraparesis. X-ALD is an X-linked condition that primarily affects male patients; however, some female patients who are carriers can develop later-onset neurologic manifestations. In 2016, X-ALD was added to the US Recommended Uniform Screening Panel, a list of conditions that are nationally recommended for newborn screening by the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children.


Refsum disease is a peroxisomal disorder characterized by anosmia, retinitis pigmentosa, neuropathy, deafness, ataxia, ichthyosis, and cardiac abnormalities. The classic biochemical profile of Refsum disease is an elevated plasma or serum phytanic acid level.


Biochemical abnormalities in peroxisomal disorders include accumulations of VLCFA, phytanic, and pristanic acid. The differential diagnosis of these disorders is based on recognition of clinical phenotypes combined with a series of biochemical tests to assess peroxisomal function and structure. These include measurements and ratios of VLCFA, pipecolic acid (PIPA / Pipecolic Acid, Serum; PIPU / Pipecolic Acid, Random, Urine), phytanic acid and its metabolite pristanic acid. In addition, confirmatory testing for X-ALD (XALDZ / X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy, Full Gene Analysis, Varies) via molecular genetic analysis is available.

Reference Values


≤96.3 nmol/mL



≤91.4 nmol/mL



≤1.30 nmol/mL


C24:0/C22:0 RATIO



C26:0/C22:0 RATIO




0-4 months: ≤0.60 nmol/mL

5-8 months: ≤0.84 nmol/mL

9-12 months: ≤0.77 nmol/mL

13-23 months: ≤1.47 nmol/mL

≥24 months: ≤2.98 nmol/mL



0-4 months: ≤5.28 nmol/mL

5-8 months: ≤5.70 nmol/mL

9-12 months: ≤4.40 nmol/mL

13-23 months: ≤8.62 nmol/mL

≥24 months: ≤9.88 nmol/mL



0-4 months: ≤0.35

5-8 months: ≤0.28

9-12 months: ≤0.23

13-23 months: ≤0.24

≥24 months: ≤0.39


Reports include concentrations of C22:0, C24:0, C26:0 species, phytanic acid and pristanic acid, and calculated C24:0/C22:0, C26:0/C22:0, and phytanic acid:pristanic acid ratios. When no significant abnormalities are detected, a simple descriptive interpretation is provided.


A profile of elevated phytanic acid, low-normal pristanic acid, and normal very long-chain fatty acids is suggestive of Refsum disease (phytanic acid oxidase deficiency); however, phytanic acid concentration may also be increased in disorders of peroxisomal biogenesis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of peroxisomal disorders.


If results are suggestive of hemizygosity for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, we also include the calculated value of a discriminating function used to more accurately segregate hemizygous individuals from normal controls.


Positive test results could be due to a genetic or nongenetic condition. Additional confirmatory testing would be required to differentiate between these causes.

Clinical Reference

1. Moser AB, Kreiter N, Bezman L, et al: Plasma very long chain fatty acid assay in 3,000 peroxisome disease patients and 29,000 controls. Ann Neurol. 1999;45:100-110

2. Turk BR, Theda C, Fatemi A, Moser AB: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: Pathology, pathophysiology, diagnostic testing, newborn screening and therapies. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2020;80(1):52-72. doi: 10.1002/jdn.10003

3. Waterham HR, Ferdinandusse S, Wanders RJA: Human disorders of peroxisome metabolism and biogenesis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2016 May;1863(5):922-933. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2015.11.015

Day(s) Performed

Monday through Friday

Report Available

2 to 5 days

Test Classification

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information


LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
POXP Fatty Acid Profile, Peroxisomal,P 43677-4


Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
36641 C22:0 30194-5
36642 C24:0 30195-2
36643 C26:0 30197-8
36644 C24:0/C22:0 30196-0
36645 C26:0/C22:0 30198-6
36646 Pristanic Acid 22761-1
36647 Phytanic Acid 22671-2
36648 Pristanic/Phytanic 30550-8
36649 Interpretation (POXP) 59462-2

Necessary Information

1. Patient's age and sex is required.

2. Include information regarding treatment, family history, and tentative diagnosis.

Specimen Required

Patient Preparation:

1. Fasting-overnight (12-14 hours). If fasting not possible for babies or infants, collect specimen prior to next feeding.

2. Patient must not consume any alcohol for 24 hours before the specimen is collected.

Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Green top (sodium heparin)

Acceptable: Lavender top (EDTA) or green top (lithium heparin)

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Collection Instructions: Centrifuge and aliquot plasma into plastic vial.

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