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Test ID VWAG von Willebrand Factor Antigen, Plasma

Reporting Name

von Willebrand Factor Ag, P

Useful For

Diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD) and differentiation of VWD subtype (in conjunction with von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity and factor VIII coagulant activity)


Differentiation of VWD from hemophilia A (in conjunction with factor VIII coagulant assay)


Monitoring therapeutic efficacy of treatment with DDAVP (desmopressin) or von Willebrand factor (VWF) concentrates in patients with VWD

Specimen Type

Plasma Na Cit

Additional Testing Requirements

VWACT / von Willebrand Factor Activity, Plasma and F8A / Coagulation Factor VIII Activity Assay, Plasma are recommended in conjunction with this test (von Willebrand antigen).

Specimen Required

See Coagulation Guidelines for Specimen Handling and Processing in Special Instructions.


Specimen Type: Platelet-poor plasma

Collection Container/Tube: Light-blue top (citrate)

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 1 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Spin down, remove plasma, and spin plasma again.

2. Freeze plasma immediately (no longer than 4 hours after collection) at -20° C or, ideally, at ≤-40° C.

Additional Information:

1. Double-centrifuged specimen is critical for accurate results as platelet contamination may cause spurious results.

2. Each coagulation assay requested should have its own vial.

Specimen Minimum Volume

0.5 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Plasma Na Cit Frozen 14 days

Reference Values


Note: Individuals of blood group "O" may have lower plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen than those of other ABO blood groups, such that apparently normal individuals of blood group "O" may have plasma VWF antigen as low as 40% to 50%, whereas the lower limit of the reference range for individuals of other blood groups may be 60% to 70%.

Children: Neonates, infants, and children have normal or mildly increased plasma VWF antigen, with respect to the adult reference range.

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday through Saturday

Test Classification

This test has been modified from the manufacturer's instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information


LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
VWAG von Willebrand Factor Ag, P 27816-8


Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
VWAG von Willebrand Factor Ag, P 27816-8

Clinical Information

The von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein that is important for platelet-platelet and platelet-vessel hemostatic interactions. In addition, plasma VWF serves as a carrier protein for coagulation factor VIII, stabilizing its procoagulant activity. VWF circulates in the blood in 2 distinct compartments; plasma VWF mainly reflects VWF synthesis and release from vascular endothelial cells, and platelet VWF (about 10% of the blood VWF) reflects VWF synthesis by bone marrow megakaryocytes with storage primarily in the alpha granules of circulating platelets. VWF antigen measurement assesses the mass of plasma VWF protein, but does not reflect VWF functions or platelet VWF. The major function of VWF (mediating platelet-platelet or platelet-vessel interaction) is most commonly assessed by measurement of plasma ristocetin cofactor activity.


Decreased VWF antigen may be seen in:

-Congenital von Willebrand disease

-Acquired von Willebrand disease (VWD) that may be associated with monoclonal gammopathies, lymphoproliferative disorders, autoimmune disorders, and hypothyroidism


Increased VWF antigen may be seen in association with:

-Pregnancy and/or estrogen use

-Inflammation (acute-phase reactant)

-Exercise or stress

-Liver disease


-Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome


von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen measurement is most effective when it is combined with measurement of VWF ristocetin cofactor activity and factor VIII coagulant activity, preferably as a panel of tests with reflexive testing and interpretive reporting. Within this context, VWF antigen measurement can be useful for:

-Diagnosis of VWD and differentiation of VWD subtype

-Differentiation of VWD from hemophilia A (in conjunction with factor VIII coagulant assay)


von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen assay results generally must be used together with assays of VWF ristocetin cofactor activity and factor VIII coagulant activity, for optimum clinical utility and diagnostic efficiency. The diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD) requires a combination of clinical and laboratory information. We suggest ordering AVWPR / von Willebrand Disease Profile.


Patients with congenital severe type III VWD have a markedly decreased or undetectable level of VWF antigen in the plasma (and in the platelets), in addition to a plasma ristocetin cofactor activity that is very low, or not detectable.


Patients with types IIA and IIB variants of VWF (with abnormal plasma VWF function and multimeric structure) may have normal or decreased plasma VWF antigen. However, they typically have decreased plasma ristocetin cofactor activity, along with decreased higher molecular-weight VWF multimers in the plasma.


Patients with types IIM or IIN VWD have normal levels of VWF antigen. In spite of this, they either have decreased vWF ristocetin cofactor activity, not caused by absence of higher molecular weight vWF multimers (type IIM VWD), or decreased factor VIII coagulant activity (type IIN VWD)


Patients with type I VWD (with decreased but normally functioning plasma VWF) have concordantly decreased plasma VWF antigen and ristocetin cofactor activity.


Patients with acquired VWD may have either normal or decreased plasma VWF antigen.

Clinical Reference

1. Sadler JE, Blinder M: von Willebrand disease: diagnosis, classification and treatment. In Hemostasis and Thrombosis: Basic Principles and Clinical Practice. Fifth edition. Edited by RW Colman, VJ Marder, AW Clowes, et al. Baltimore, MD, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2006, pp 905-921

2. Eby C, Chance D, Oliver D: A multicenter evaluation of ATA-LIATEST VWF: A new latex particle immunoassay for von Willebrand factor antigen. Clin Hemostasis Rev 1997;11:16-17

3. Rodeghiero F, Castaman G, Tosetto A: Von Willebrand factor antigen is less sensitive then ristocetin cofactor for the diagnosis of type K von Willebrand disease – Results based on an epidemiological investigation. Thromb Haemost 1990;64:349-352

4. Triplett DA: Laboratory diagnosis of von Willebrand’s disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1991;66:832-840

Analytic Time

1 day

Method Name

Latex Immunoassay (LIA)


If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Coagulation Test Request (T753) with the specimen.